Thursday, July 27, 2017

Thermal Mass Flow Measurement of Tank Blanketing Gas

thermal dispersion mass flow meter insertion type
Insertion style thermal mass flow meter can measure
low flow rates of gas for tank blanketing.
Courtesy Magnetrol
Closed liquid tanks and other vessels contain two substances, liquid and not liquid. The liquid, in this case, is the subject material of a process. The "not liquid" is whatever fills the space not filled by the subject liquid. There are many cases where the process, the subject liquid, and safety are best served by filling the space with a known gas. There may be concerns about ignition of the vapor from the liquid, reactivity of the liquid with oxygen, or a wide range of other issues that call for filling the tank space with a known gas.

Nitrogen is a commonly employed gas for tank blanketing. It is comparatively inexpensive and widely available. It can inhibit combustion by displacing atmospheric oxygen and is not reactive with most industrial process chemicals.

Vessels with rapidly changing levels, or those of very large size, will require larger available flow capacity of blanketing gas to maintain the desired conditions within the tank. There are regulating valves designed specifically for tank blanketing operations. Vents intended for use in the same application are also commercially available.

Monitoring tank liquid level and gas flow are part of best practices for a tank blanketing operation. Confirming that gas flow rate is commensurate with the requirements for current tank level confirms proper operation. Too high a flow rate could indicate a leak or malfunction of a blanketing system component. It may also be useful to totalize gas flow for use in operational planning.

Thermal insertion flow meters are suitable for measuring the wide range of gas flow rates employed in tank blanketing applications. The instruments are available for insertion installation, as shown in the image near the top of this article, or as inline units. Either configuration delivers accurate measurement with no moving parts, a high turndown ratio, and minimal maintenance requirement.

Share your tank blanketing requirements and challenges with process measurement and control specialists, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product appliction expertise to develop effective solutions.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Thermal Mass Flow Meter Questions Answered by Experts

Insertion style thermal mass flowmeter
Thermatel, insertion style thermal mass flow meter
Image courtesy of Magnetrol
Knowledgeable individuals that share expertise and experience with others in their field are a valuable resource, worthy of our attention.

Tom Kemme, from Magnetrol®, expertly fielded some questions about thermal mass flow meters in a recent blog post. Mr. Kemme's responses were so useful and clear that I decided, with all the credit flowing his way, to share them here for those of you that may not closely follow the Magnetrol® Blog.

Will thermal mass flow meters be affected by changes in the composition of gas (i.e. will they require recalibration every time the composition changes)?
Thermal mass flow meters measure a flow rate based on convective heat transfer. Fluid properties are some of the many factors that influence convection. Each gas has unique properties, which is why these flow meters are calibrated for a specific application. You would not want a meter calibrated for an air application placed into a natural gas application without recalibration or some type of field adjustment if applicable.
All gas mixes are not created equal. If you had a gas mix with high hydrogen content, a variation in hydrogen would have a much greater effect than typical variation in natural gas content. Hydrogen has a tendency to create more heat transfer than most gases. For natural gas, it is common to have some slight variation in composition between the calibration of the device and the application itself. However, the effect is minimal for slight changes in methane or ethane at different times of the year. Natural gas fuel flow is one of the most prevalent applications for thermal mass.
Based on our experience, the biggest cause of malfunction in flow meters is improper installation. If you do not install a flow meter per the manufacturer’s recommendation this will greatly influence the performance of the meter. For thermal mass, this includes proper straight run, depth into the pipe (insertion probes) and flow arrow alignment.
Each application presents unique difficulties for every flow meter technology, and each end user has unique needs. There is no exact answer as to when a recalibration would be needed for thermal mass flow, as it is application dependent. You do not always need recalibrations for variation in gas composition.
What role do thermal flow meters play in emissions monitoring applications?
Thermal flow meters are at the forefront in flow measurement for emissions reporting and energy management projects. The energy management arena spans many markets, including some of the largest in the oil & gas and power industries. Some popular applications include monitoring gas fuel flow to a combustion source to report SO2 (sulfur dioxide) emissions, stack (flue) gas flow in power plants as part of a continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) system of NOX (nitrous oxide) and SO2, and flares in a gas field that need to be reported to environmental authorities. These applications prove difficult for many flow meter technologies.
For example, in a flare application most of the time gas is not being flared off, but it needs to be measured in case of an event. The user will want to monitor the low flow of pilot gas keeping the flare lit. This requires a flow meter with a very high turndown with good low flow sensitivity, which is a limitation of some technologies, such as differential pressure flow meters.
Many operators are most concerned with measuring CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. However, with thermal flow meters we are increasingly finding applications with the need for methane measurement. Methane is a greenhouse gas that has more than 20 times the global warming potential as CO2. No longer can coalmines or landfills emit this directly to the atmosphere. If not flaring the gas off, the owners are beginning to capture it, treat it, and produce usable natural gas from it. Some facilities that emit landfill gas, or facilities that produce biogas, are involved in carbon credit programs or clean development mechanisms. Similar applications can be found in wastewater treatment plants where customers are reporting digester gas emissions and even capturing this gas to produce electricity and reduce energy costs. Thermal dispersion flow meter technology, such as the MAGNETROL Thermatel® TA2, has become well accepted in all of these markets.
You can easily tap into Magnetrol® expertise to solve your flow measurement challenges. Reach out to a product specialist and combine your process knowledge with their flow measurement expertise to develop effective solutions.

Thermal Dispersion Flow Switches For Pump Protection

thermal dispersion flow switch pump protection
Thermal dispersion flow switches have advantages
when applied for pump protection
Image courtesy Magnetrol
Good practice for installing industrial pumps calls for inclusion of protective devices to assure that the pump is not exposed to conditions beyond its design intent. Monitoring liquid flow is a useful method for determining if a pump is operating within a safe range.

There are numerous methods of verifying flow in piping connected to a  pump. Magnetrol, globally recognized manufacturer of flow and level measurement technologies, offers up their assessment of various pump protection measures and a recommendation for what they consider an advantageous choice for flow measurement in a pump protection application.

Magentrol's white paper is included below, and you can share your flow and level measurement challenges with application experts for help in developing effective solutions.

Friday, July 7, 2017

Corrosion Resistant Flow Meter

There are numerous flow measurement technologies available for application in process measurement. Each technology is represented by a broad array of product variants, each with a set of attributes making it suitable for certain applications.

ICON Process Controls specializes in corrosion resistant industrial fluid handling and process control equipment, offering the most complete line of all plastic instrumentation products supported by the largest inventory in North America. Applications for their corrosion resistant instruments include Municipal and Industrial Water & Wastewater Treatment, Bulk Chemicals, Steel Processing, Metal Finishing, Chemical Dosing Skids, Food & Beverage.

Share your process measurement and control requirements with instrumentation specialists. Combine your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise for effective solutions.